Variational quantum eigensolvers (VQEs) combine classical optimization with efficient cost function evaluations on quantum computers. We propose a new approach to VQEs using the principles of measurement-based quantum computation. This strategy uses entangled resource states and local measurements. We present two measurement-based VQE schemes. The first introduces a new approach for constructing variational families. The second provides a translation of circuit-based to measurement-based schemes. Both schemes offer problem-specific advantages in terms of the required resources and coherence times.